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FBI data reveals over 10000 bombings resulting in 355 deaths and over 3ooo injuries between 1990 and 1995. Based on FBI data calculations, approximately 70% of domestic terrorist incidents involve some type of explosives; Analysts need to be aware that explosive devices can be comprised of а wide variety of materials. The number of chemical, biological, and nuclear attack incidents are not as startling as those of conventional explosives mentioned above. The Center for Non-Proliferation Studies, in а 2ooo CSIS report, showed that in 1999 there were 175 reports of chemical, biological, and nuclear terrorism, 1o4 of which occurred in the U.S.
This was а dramatic increase over the database findings in February, 2000 of а total of 687 incidents since 1900. Definitive numbers are difficult to attain. The Center uses the media as its source of information, and it was noted that apparent increases might be attributed to hoaxes and different reporting methods. Regardless of the true numbers, there definitely appears to be an increase in the use or the perceived use of these agents. There are numerous biological agents that can be employed by terrorists. (Rick 2004 96).
The U. S.Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases lists the following diseases and biological toxins as potentially suitable for introduction into the population by deliberate dispersal: 1. Bacterial infections-anthrax, cholera, plague, tularemia, and “Q” fever 2. Viruses-smallpox, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers 3.
Biological toxins-botulinum, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, and T-2 Mycotoxins Chemical agents have been used in warfare for years, even by law enforcement in the form: 1. Nerve agents-Sarin (GB) 2. Vesicants-Mustard gas (HD, H), Lewisite (L) 3. Lung-damaging agents-Phosgene.
4. Cyanide 5. Riot-control agents-CS and CN Methods of exposure to the biological and chemical agents mentioned above include the following: 1. Absorption (through the skin) 2. Ingestion (swallowing or eating) 3. Inhalation (breathing) 4. Injection (usually through а hypodermic syringe) The above chemical and biological concerns are critical components for analyzing materials and data, but а greater concern exists for the first responder. It is one thing to analyze information about WMD, but it is the first responders of the world who will encounter, usually unsuspectingly, chemical and biological agents.
Therefore it is essential that information be made immediately available to them as it is discovered, and that they be properly trained in all aspects of this extremely dangerous situation. Many how-to documents are available, some covering chemical and biological agents. In the previously mentioned terrorism training manual document seized in Manchester, England, “Military Studies in the Jihad against the Tyrants” several poisons were described in detail. Included in this compendium was information on extracts or derivatives of herbal and plant products that can be used to make substances such as ricin.
“During JTF NA, the USAFE/LG staff was organized into control cells to manage the combat support infrastructure, including the distribution system. (Rick 2004 93) With no policy to guide them, these control cells developed new reporting procedures to meet the needs of their customers. Innovative reporting and control processes were critical to the decision-making required to execute combat support as operations escalated. 6 These control cells resemble aspects of the CSC2 TO-BE operational architecture now being implemented. (Robert et al 2004 29)